Efeito da dieta cetogênica na capacidade de endurance e na utilização de substratos energéticos no exercício

Cristiane Oliveira de Abreu Perroni, Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Vilma Simões Pereira Panza

Resumo


O objetivo desta revisão foi identificar e discutir evidências científicas sobre os efeitos da dieta cetogênica com severa restrição de carboidrato na capacidade de endurance e em metabólicas no exercício em indivíduos saudáveis. Realizou-se uma busca de artigos publicados entre os anos de 1975 e 2017, nas bases de dados MedLine, Scielo e Google acadêmico. Utilizou-se as palavras-chave: ketogenic diet, low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, exercise, training, endurance, endurance capacity, performance, fuel oxidation, fat oxidation e metabolic adaptation. Foram selecionados 10 artigos, dentre os quais, nove demonstraram que a dieta cetogênica aumentou a taxa de oxidação de gordura e atenuou a taxa de utilização de glicogênio muscular durante o exercício. Contudo, oito estudos relataram efeitos negativos da dieta cetogênica em exercícios moderados ou intensos, relacionados principalmente ao tempo até a exaustão, à percepção de esforço, à produção de potência e à economia de exercício tanto em indivíduos treinados quanto em não treinados. Esta revisão concluiu que, independentemente do nível de treinamento, a dieta cetogênica ofertando <50 g de carboidrato por dia, embora possa induzir vantagens metabólicas, pode resultar em efeitos ergolíticos, quanto à capacidade de endurance, bem como a outros parâmetros de alto desempenho, onde a dependência de carboidrato é claramente predominante.

 

ABSTRACT

Effect of the ketogenic diet on exercise endurance capacity and fuel utilization

The objective of this review was to identify and discuss scientific evidence on the effects of the ketogenic diet with severe carbohydrate restriction on endurance capacity and on metabolic responses during exercise in healthy individuals. A search of articles published between 1975 and 2017 was performed in the databases of MedLine, Scielo and Google Scholars. The following key words were used: ketogenic diet, low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, exercise, training, endurance, endurance capacity, performance, fuel oxidation, fat oxidation, and metabolic adaptation. Ten articles were selected, of which nine showed that the ketogenic diet increased the rate of fat oxidation and attenuated the rate of glycogen utilization during exercise. However, eight studies reported negative effects of the ketogenic diet on moderate or intense exercises, mainly related to time to exhaustion, perception of effort, power output, and exercise economy both in trained and untrained subjects. This review concluded that, independently of training status, the ketogenic diet offering <50 g of carbohydrate per day, although it may induce metabolic advantages, may result in ergolytic effects on endurance capacity, as well as other high performance parameters, where the carbohydrate dependence is clearly predominant.


Palavras-chave


Dieta cetogênica; Carboidrato; Exercício; Resistência; Desempenho

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


-Aragon, A.A.; Schoenfeld, B.J.; Wildman, R.; Kleiner, S.; Van Dusseldorp, T.; Taylor, L.; Earnest, C.P.; Arciero, P.J.; Wilborn, C.; Kalman, D.S.; Stout, J.R.; Willoughby, D.S.; Campbell, B.; Arent, S.M.; Bannock, L.; Smith-Ryan, A.E.; Antonio, J. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition. Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition. Vol. 14. Num. 16. 2017. p. 1-19.

-Ball, D.; Greenhaff, P.L.; Maughan, R.J. The acute reversal of a diet-induced metabolic acidosis does not restore endurance capacity during high-intensity exercise in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. Vol. 73. Num. 1-2. 1996. p. 105-112.

-Burke, L.M.; Ross, M.L.; Garvican-Lewis, L.A.; Welvaert, M.; Heikura, I.A.; Forbes, S.G.; Mirtschin, J.G.; Cato, L.E.; Strobel, N.; Sharma, A.; Hawley, J.A. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers. Journal of Physiology. Vol. 595. Num. 9. 2017. p. 2785-2807.

-Burke, L.M.; Hawley, J.A.; Wong, S.H.; Jeukendrup A.E. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences. Vol. 29. Supl. 1. 2011. p.17-27.

-Burke, L.M. Re-examining high–fat diets for sports performance: did we call the 'nail in the coffin' too soon? Sports Medicine. Vol. 45. Supl. 1. 2015. p. 33-49.

-Cahill, G.F. Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annual Review of Nutrition. Vol. 26. 2006. p.1-22.

-Coggan, R.; Swanson, S.C. Nutritional manipulations before and during endurance exercise: effects on performance. Medicine Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol. 24. Supl. 9. 1992. p. 331-335.

-Costill, D.L.; Hargreaves, M. Carbohydrate nutrition and fatigue. Sports Medicine. Vol. 13. Num. 2. 1992. p. 86-92.

-Fleming, J.; Sharman, M.J.; Avery, N.G.; Love, D.M.; Gómez, A.L.; Scheett, T.P.; Kraemer, W.J.; Volek, J.S. Endurance capacity and high-intensity exercise performance responses to a high fat diet. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. Vol. 13. Num. 4. 2003. p. 466-478.

-Fukao, T.; Lopaschuk, G.; Mitchell, G.A. Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. Vol. 70. Num. 3. 2004. p. 243-251.

-Galbo, H.; Holst, J.J.; Christensen, N.J. The effect of different diets and of insulin on the hormonal response to prolonged exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Vol. 107. Num. 1. 1979. p. 19-32.

-Garnier, A.; Fortin, D.; Zoll, J.; N'Guessan, B.; Mettauer, B.; Lampert, E.; Veksler, V.; Ventura-Clapier, R. Coordinated changes in mitochondrial function and biogenesis in healthy and diseased human skeletal muscle. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal. Vol. 19. Num. 1. 2005. p. 43-52.

-Greenhaff, P.L.; Gleeson, M.; Maughan, R.J. Diet-induced metabolic acidosis and the performance of high intensity exercise in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. Vol. 57. Num. 5. 1988. p. 583-590.

-Holloszy, J.O.; Coyle, E.F. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology. Vol. 56. Num. 4. 1984. p. 831-838.

- Holloszy, J.O.; Kohrt, W.M.; Hansen, PA. The regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during and after exercise. Frontiers in Bioscience. Vol. 3. 1998. p. 1011-1027.

- Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2005. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 16/10/2013.

-Knuttgen, H.G.; Kraemer, W. Terminology and measurement in exercise performance. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. Vol. 1. Num. 1. 1987. p. 1-10.

-Kreider, R.B. Physiological considerations of ultraendurance performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. Vol. 1. Num. 1. 1991. p.3-27.

-Paoli, A. Ketogenic diet for obesity: friend or foe? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Vol. 11. Num. 2. 2014. p. 2092-2107.

-Phinney, S.D.; Bistrian, B.R.; Evans, W.J.; Gervino, E.; Blackburn, G.L. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism. Vol. 32. Num. 8. 1983a. p. 769-776.

-Phinney, S.D.; Bistrian, B.R.; Wolfe, R.R.; Blackburn, G.L. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptation. Metabolism. Vol. 32. Num. 8.1983b. p. 757-768.

- Phinney, S.D. Ketogenic diets and physical performance. Nutrition and Metabolism. Vol. 1. Num. 2. 2004.

-Raper, J.A.; Love, L.K.; Paterson, D.H.; Peters, S.J.; Heigenhauser, G.J.; Kowalchuk, J.M. Effect of high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during the transition to moderate-intensity exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 117. Num. 11. 2014. p.1371-1379.

-Romijn, J.A.; Coyle, E.F.; Sidossis, L.S.; Gastaldelli, A.; Horowitz, J.F.; Endert, E.; Wolfe, R.R. Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. The American Journal of Physiology. Vol. 265. Num. 3. 1993, p. 380-391.

-Soeters, M.R.; Soeters, P.B.; Schooneman, M.G.; Houten, S.M.; Romijn, J.A. Adaptive reciprocity of lipid and glucose metabolism in human short-term starvation. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Vol. 303. Num. 12. 2012. p.1397-1407.

- Spriet, L.L. New insights into the interaction of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise. Sports Medicine. Vol. 344. Supl. 1. 2014. p. 87-96.

- Urbain, P.; Strom, L.; Morawski, L.; Wehrle, A.; Deibert, P.; Bertz, H. Impact of a 6–week non–energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adults. Nutrition and Metabolism. Vol. 14. N.17. 2017.

-Webster, C.C.; Noakes, T.D.; Chacko, S.K.; Swart, J.; Kohn, T.A.; Smith, J.A. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high-fat diet. Journal of Physiolojy. Vol. 594. Num. 15. 2016. p. 4389-43405.

-Westman, E. C.; Feinman, R.D.; Mavropoulos, J.C.; Vernon, M.C.; Volek, J.S.; Wortman, J.A.; Yancy, W.S.; Phinney, S.D. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 86. Num. 2. 2007. p. 276-284.

-Yeo, W.K.; Carey, A.L.; Burke, L.; Spriet, L.L.; Hawley, J.A. Fat adaptation in well-trained athletes: effects on cell metabolism. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Vol. 36. Num. 1. 2011. p. 12-22.

-Zinn, C.; Wood, M.; Williden, M.; Chatterton, S.; Maunder, E. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes. Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition. Vol. 14. Num. 22. 2017. p.14:22.


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons

RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva

IBPEFEX - Instituto Brasileiro de Pesquisa e Ensino em Fisiologia do Exercício

Editor-Chefe: Francisco Navarro. E-mail para contato: aqui

Editor Gerente: Francisco Nunes Navarro. E-mail para contato: aqui